当前位置:首页 > Everyday Grammar 每日语法 > 正文

Common Transition Words

2017-09-08

源 稿 窗
大字
小字
 折叠显示 
 全文显示 
[00:00.00]
  • In 1963, President John Kennedy gave a famous speech at American University.
  • [00:10.17]
  • In the speech, Kennedy said the following lines:
  • [00:15.51]
  • "Our problems are manmade; therefore, they can be solved by man.
  • [00:21.71]
  • And man can be as big as he wants. No problem of human destiny is beyond human beings."
  • [00:29.79]
  • Today's report is not about global problems.
  • [00:34.84]
  • Nor is it about human destiny.
  • [00:37.82]
  • Instead, it is about something much more exciting: transition words.
  • [00:44.64]
  • Transitions are words that show relationships between ideas.
  • [00:50.05]
  • According to grammar experts Susan Conrad and Douglas Biber, transitions are most common in academic writing.
  • [01:00.80]
  • These transition words have different uses.
  • [01:04.72]
  • They can suggest that a result, clarification, or example is coming.
  • [01:12.07]
  • We will now look at each of these uses in greater detail.
  • [01:17.56]
  • Transition words that show a result include therefore and thus.
  • [01:25.37]
  • The words you heard at the beginning of this report give you one example of therefore:
  • [01:32.78]
  • "Our problems are manmade; therefore, they can be solved by man."
  • [01:39.09]
  • In the quote, the word therefore connects two statements: "Our problems are manmade" and "they [our problems] can be solved by mankind."
  • [01:51.78]
  • The word therefore suggests "for that reason" or "because of that..."
  • [01:57.89]
  • Thus has a similar meaning. Academic writers often use it as a way to show a summary or conclusion.
  • [02:07.55]
  • You might read a paragraph that begins with the words "Thus, we conclude that..."
  • [02:14.98]
  • In this case, the word thus is referring to ideas or arguments presented earlier in the written work.
  • [02:23.25]
  • In general, the writer is saying that the reasons already presented lead them to their conclusion.
  • [02:32.10]
  • A second use of transitions is to restate or clarify ideas.
  • [02:38.97]
  • Common examples include in other words and i.e.
  • [02:45.81]
  • Consider this example from a past Everyday Grammar program:
  • [02:51.73]
  • "Adverbials can appear at different places in a sentence. In other words, they are movable."
  • [03:00.39]
  • In the example, the second sentence restates and clarifies the idea that comes in the first sentence.
  • [03:09.05]
  • This added example helps to make the point more memorable and easier to understand.
  • [03:16.94]
  • I.e. can also restate or clarify an idea. Writers often use it in parenthetical statements or phrases.
  • [03:29.51]
  • The Everyday Grammar writer could have written the following words:
  • [03:35.24]
  • "Adverbials can appear at different places in a sentence (i.e. they are movable).
  • [03:42.00]
  • This sentence has a similar meaning to the first sentence, although it is different stylistically.
  • [03:51.08]
  • A final group of transition words show that the writer is about to provide an example.
  • [03:58.77]
  • Common words include for example and for instance.
  • [04:04.63]
  • Consider how President Ronald Reagan uses for example in his address to the United Nations in 1988:
  • [04:14.42]
  • "That is why when human rights progress is made, the United Nations grows stronger-and the United States is glad of it. Following a 2-year effort led by the United States, for example, the U.N. Human Rights Commission took a major step toward ending the double standards and cynicism that had characterized too much of its past."
  • [04:35.35]
  • Reagan's second sentence, although lengthy, supports the point that he makes in the first sentence.
  • [04:43.57]
  • This is a useful pattern to use both in writing and formal speaking.
  • [04:48.99]
  • The transitions we have discussed today can appear at different places in a sentence.*
  • [04:56.67]
  • This movability is important to understand for students of writing.
  • [05:03.32]
  • Think back to Reagan's speech. He used for example in the middle of his sentence.
  • [05:11.32]
  • "Following a 2-year effort led by the United States, for example, the U.N. Human Rights Commission took a major step toward ending the double standards and cynicism that had characterized too much of its past."
  • [05:24.76]
  • Reagan could have used for example at another place in the sentence – the very beginning, for one.
  • [05:33.94]
  • Such a sentence would have sounded like this:
  • [05:38.43]
  • "For example, following a 2-year effort led by the United States, the U.N. Human Rights Commission took a major step toward ending the double standards and cynicism that had characterized too much of its past."
  • [05:55.49]
  • Now that you have learned about transitions, you should practice using them.
  • [06:02.60]
  • However, do not use them too often.
  • [06:07.87]
  • Your reader or listener might lose interest if you use too many transitions.
  • [06:15.27]
  • Also, you should be careful about using the transitions we have talked about today while speaking.
  • [06:24.64]
  • They are polite and acceptable; however, they can make you sound very formal.
  • [06:32.21]
  • With time and practice, you will learn how and when to use transitions correctly.
  • [06:39.18]
  • And now, it is time for us to transition to the end of our report.
  • [06:48.02]
  • I'm John Russell.
  • [06:49.42]
  • And I'm Alice Bryant.
  • 如您有建议或意见点击这里给我们留言